Days in the Life: The Great War in Edinburgh

 

Introduction

Much has been written recently in this anniversary year of World War 1 and most, if not all, of this has rightly focussed on the terrible conditions suffered in the trenches and the battles fought by troops on the Front Lines.  The traumas experienced by ordinary soldiers and the privations endured in trench warfare are almost unimaginable to us today.  Those who were left behind in Britain – the wives, fathers, mothers, brothers & sisters – could only bear the experience of this terrible period as best they could, hope and pray for their loved ones, and ‘do their bit’ for the war effort.  On this ‘front’, the citizens of Edinburgh were no different to those in other parts of the UK; they did whatever they could to help the lads on the Frontline.

 This little pictorial exhibition of some of the posters that were produced in the years of the conflict and which would have been posted in public places around the City gives some idea of the kinds of things ordinary folk here got involved in – from enlistment itself to raising money – to help bring victory and the War to a close.

 There are 6 categories of posters illustrated below:

 ·         Enlistment

·         Flag Days

·         War Loans

·         Advice & Exhortations to the public

·         Fund-raising events

·         Morale-boosting propaganda

Enlistment

1: 1914 September Enlistment in City Battalion

1: 1914 September Enlistment in City Battalion

 

 

2: 1914 September Royal Scots Enlistment

2: 1914 September Royal Scots Enlistment

 

 

 

Slides 1-3:  The Royal Scots is the oldest infantry regiment of the line in the British

3: 1915 February Royal Scots enlistment

3: 1915 February Royal Scots enlistment

Army and both the City of Edinburgh Battalion (15th) and the 2/9th, Highlanders Battalion were raised in the City in September 1914.  The 17th (Service Battalion) was formed shortly afterwards by Lord Roseberry and a local committee in February 1915.

4: 1918 Parade of Women's Army Auxiliaries

4: 1918 Parade of Women’s Army Auxiliaries

 Slide 4: The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps was formed in early 1917 and survived under this name till November 1918.  Over 57,000 women served during this time. On 31 March 1917 women in the WAAC were first sent to the battlefields in France, 14 cooks and waitresses.

Flag Days

5: 1915 Help Serbia Flag Day

5: 1915 Help Serbia Flag Day

 

 

 

 

Slides 5 & 6: The Serbian Campaign, fought by the Kingdom of Serbia against Austria-Hungary began in July 1914 and continued to the end of hostilities in November 1918.

6: 1917 Serbian Boys' Flag Day

6: 1917 Serbian Boys’ Flag Day

 

 

 

During the war Serbia lost more than one million of its inhabitants representing 27% of the total and 60% of the male population – easy to see why the allied citizenry were exhorted to support them.

 

Slides 7-9: These posters were used to coax Edinburgh & Leith’s populace to financially support various allied countries such as Russia and France or just to raise funds for troops or medical supplies.

7: 1916 Edinburgh & Leith Russian Flag Day

7: 1916 Edinburgh & Leith Russian Flag Day

8: 1915 14 July Help France

8: 1915 14 July Help France

 

 

 

 

9: 1917 Edinburgh Flag Day

9: 1917 Edinburgh Flag Day

War Loans

10: 1915 Victory Loan Campaign, Usher Hall

10: 1915 Victory Loan Campaign, Usher Hall

 

 

11: 1915 The British Sovereign Will Win

11: 1915 The British Sovereign Will Win

Slides 10-15: Just some of the many posters used to help the country raise funds for the war effort – some from central authorities such as the Parliamentary War Savings Committee while others were locally instigated like those illustrated in slides 10 & 14. 

12: 1910s War Loan - Message from our troops

12: 1910s War Loan – Message from our troops

The Town Council of Edinburgh had been investing in the War Loan scheme for some time but at a meeting of 6th February 1917 they voted to purchase more with the purpose of re-selling to the citizens of Edinburgh; Lord Provost, John Lorne Macleod put his name to this local plan.

 

13: 1916 Crush the Germans Parliamentary War Savings Committee

13: 1916 Crush the Germans Parliamentary War Savings Committee

14: 1917 February - The War Loan - Edinburgh

14: 1917 February – The War Loan – Edinburgh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advice & exhortation to the public

Slides 15-16: These illustrate the effect that German submarine attacks on British shipping carrying food supplies to Britain was having by 1917 – all were urged to eat less and tighten their belts.

15: c. 1917 Food Economy Poster

15: c. 1917 Food Economy Poster

 

16: 1917-18 Bread will save You

16: 1917-18 Bread will save You

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slide 17: As the War wore on not only the death toll but the numbers of casualties rose.  This poster encouraged employers to find jobs for those disabled fighting on the Front.

17: c. 1918 Don't Pity Disabled

17: c. 1918 Don’t Pity Disabled

Fund-raising events

18: 1915 Charity Rugby Match

18: 1915 Charity Rugby Match

 

19 :1915 Cinema Ambulance Day

19 :1915 Cinema Ambulance Day

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slides 18-19: These two posters exemplify just some of the other methods used to collect funds for the war effort; these included not only rugby matches and cinema events but also boxing & football matches as well as concerts in public halls.  All demonstrate how locals contributed to the overall campaign.

 

 

Morale-boosting propaganda

20: 1916 The King visits His Armies

20: 1916 The King visits His Armies

Slides 20-22: These colourful posters show the kinds of morale-boosting propaganda – with film and by photographic exhibitions – that was used in Edinburgh and the country at large to give the populace heart and maintain an esprit de corps throughout the long war years.

 

21: 1917 The German Retreat - Battle of Arras
21: 1917 The German Retreat
22: c. 1917 Official Naval Photographs Exhibition

22: c. 1917 Official Naval Photographs Exhibition

Edinburgh City Archives’ Story Box 2014

Archive RememberedAs part of the Explore Your Archive campaign 2014 Edinburgh City Archives are once again having a ‘story box’ on show to give you an idea of the kinds of records we keep and make available. Inside you will find snippets of information on the likes of Policemen, Army Recruits, Criminals, William Burke, Aliens and Disappearing Dukes!

If you fancy delving into the story box you will find one in the Edinburgh and Scottish Collection within Central Library on George IV Bridge, as well as one in the City Chambers main reception, on the High Street (opposite St Giles Cathedral).

The boxes will be available to look through from Monday 10th November through to Monday 17th November 2014. You will also be able to take away one of our general leaflets which gives you a bit more information on what we are all about, as well as our contact details so you can get in touch.

Happy exploring, we hope you enjoy…

Family History Day at Edinburgh Central Library 2014

Edinburgh City Archives are taking part in the Family History Day at Edinburgh Central Library on Saturday 15th November 2014, 10.30am to 4pm. Whether you have already made a start to your family tree, or you are a complete beginner, this is a fantastic opportunity to quiz the professionals under one roof. For more information please see http://talesofonecity.wordpress.com/familyhistoryday/

We look forward to seeing you there…

Centenary of a Royal Visit

Souvenir programmeAs events in Europe moved ever closer to war, preparations for a happy occasion in Linlithgow are revealed in the Town Council minutes.

“The Provost reported that he had received intimation … that Their Majesties the King and Queen were to honour the Burgh by a visit on Saturday 11th July next …,” Minutes of meeting of the Town Council of the Royal Burgh of Linlithgow, 14th April 1914. A Special Committee was appointed to “attend to all necessary arrangements in connection with the Royal Visit.” and the minutes of their meetings in June and July reveal these detailed preparations.

The Committee oversaw the construction of barricades to maintain public order and, in response to his request, granted the chief Constable the use of the Victoria Hall “for the purpose of feeding the Police brought in to assist the local force”. The Linlithgow Station and District Ambulance Society were provided with a Headquarters in the Masonic Hall and turned out four squads of four men each. The Committee agreed that the Magistrates robes should be sent to Messrs Pullar & Co. Ltd to be cleaned and repaired after the Marches Day and the Burgh Officer was authorised to obtain a new uniform from Mr George Anderson, Tailor, Linlithgow.

The minutes state “About Decorations, the Committee are of opinion that Their Majesties should be enabled to see the Town very much as it is, but that an appeal should be made to the General Public to decorate their houses in a simple tasteful fashion.” However, more work went into preparing other buildings in the Burgh. The Council assisted with the cost of cleaning the Parish Church. Bailies Dymock and Wardrop organised the decoration of the Town Hall Stair Case, a task made easier by the loan of plants from Mr W.M. Richard of Clarendon and Mr William Dougall of Rockville, as well as the help of their gardeners. Flags of the Trade Incorporations in the Burgh were also displayed from the windows of the Town Hall.

Representatives of the Burgh were selected for presentation to their Majesties in the Parliament Hall of the Palace. Seats in the Hall were reserved for about 200 people with some official position in the County and Burgh, and the Committee agreed the order for the issue of tickets. Further spaces were allocated in the Ladies Gallery and a range of other locations including the Council Chambers, Burgh Court Room and even the South Windows in the Town Hall (“4 persons for each window”)!

Arrangements were also made for the official press including the Glasgow News, the Linlithgowshire Gazette and West Lothian Courier, along with photographers including Mr Haddow of Lizars & Co., and Pathe’s Animated Gazette.

On the day, the crowds greeting the Royal Party included more than 900 school children and their teachers from Linlithgow Public School and the Academy. The children were in their places in the Kirkgate and Palace Yard “by 3 o’clock pm prompt”. They were presented with a commemorative medal by Mr and Mrs Hope of Bridgecastle and also given refreshments by Mr and Mrs Cadell of Grange. Entertainment was provided by Bathgate Public Prize Band in the Palace Yard and Kinneil Reed Band at the Cross, with Mr Robert Cassels acting as Musical Director. In addition, town and church bells were rung.

Evidently, the event was “a splendid success”. The minute of 16th July reads “The Committee now beg to put on record the great satisfaction of the Community that the most welcome visit of their Majesties the King and Queen, accompanied by Her Royal Highness Princess Mary, which took place on Saturday last, had enabled the Burgh to renew its old time association with the Royal Family, and to demonstrate again its ardent loyalty to the Throne.” The minutes also provide a detailed record of thanks from the Committee “to one and all who in any way assisted in the successful carrying out of this memorable function.”

  Accounts

@WW1WestLothian

8 peterjackAs part of the First World War centenary, West Lothian Council Archives has created a real-time historical twitter feed which will offer a unique insight into life in West Lothian during the First World War. The twitter feed was launched on the official centenary of the start of the war and will run for 4 years with the project end coinciding with the end of the war on the Western Front in 1918. The tweets will be based on local newspaper coverage and records from the council’s archives.

In 2015, followers will be given a chance to glimpse beyond the home-front experience as the tweets draw in entries from Private Peter Jack’s diary which was penned in 1915-1916.

Follow @WW1WestLothian and learn about West Lothian’s war-time experience in real-time.

West Lothian History and Heritage Fair 10th May 2014

 

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Come along to a fascinating day of displays, talks and workshops on a variety of aspects of Scottish, local and family history.    The 4th West Lothian History and Heritage Fair takes place at Linlithgow Academy on Saturday 10th May from 10am till 4.30pm. 

Entry is £2, with children under 16 free.   All the events are included in the entry fee, but talks and the old handwriting presentation should be pre-booked, as numbers are limited.  The remaining tickets will be available on the day, on a first come first served basis.

Throughout the day a wide range of national and local heritage organisations will provide displays and information about their work.

Refreshments and light lunches will be available.

Programme:

10am:  Family history workshop by West Lothian Family History Society

10.15 – 11.15:  Trevor Royle, Land of brave men: Scotland goes to war, August 1914

11.30 – 12.30:  Dr Alastair Durie, Scotland for the visitor: why so popular?

12.40 – 1.10:  Short dramatic presentation of ‘Letters from the Front’: West Lothian soldiers’ letters from the First World War.

2.00-3.00:  Dr David Ritchie, Irish immigration

2.00– 3.00:  Presentation on old handwriting, by Margaret McBryde of the National Records of Scotland4828

3.15 – 4.15:  John Burnett, From curling to the Commonwealth Games: Scottish sport on and off the park.

To book, telephone 01506 776347 or 776321, or email museums@westlothian.gov.uk;  or book in person at the Local History Library, Linlithgow Library, The Vennel, Linlithgow, EH49 7EX.

 

 

 

 

Edinburgh City Archives searchroom closure

IMPORTANT CUSTOMER NOTICE

Due to unforseen delays with our public searchroom refurbishment we are now intending to re-open on Tuesday 22nd April 2014.

We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause, and would remind you to contact us before you travel for up to date advice.

For more information please call us on 0131 529 4616 or email us at archives@edinburgh.gov.uk

The Mysterious Case of the Disappearing Duke

Thomas Drummond's Claim to the Earldom of Perth, 1831

Thomas Drummond’s Claim to the Earldom of Perth, 1831

The mystery surrounding James Drummond, commonly called the 3rd Duke of Perth, is an intriguing one.  Born in 1713 he was the eldest son and heir of James, 5th Earl and 2nd titular Duke of Perth.  The father was involved in the 1715 Rebellion and consequently forfeited his titles under attainder.  When James, the son returned from his education in France, though deprived of the legal titles because of his father’s actions, he nevertheless styled himself, “Duke of Perth” and was known by his tenantry and locals as such.

By 1745, James the son was himself involved in the second Jacobite rebellion having joined the forces of the “Young Pretender”, Charles Edward Stuart. He commanded the left wing of the rebel forces at Culloden in 1746.  All this is more or less agreed by most of those writing of the period but what is more curious and fascinating is the dispute over what happened to James following the rout of the Jacobite army.

Standard histories record that he was mortally wounded during the battle and though he escaped the field and made it onto the French ship “Bellone”, he died on board while on passage to France on 13 May 1746.

An alternative history however, suggests that he not only survived Culloden, but that he made the sea journey to South Shields in the north east of England.  From there he journeyed a little further by land to the mining community of Biddick about 5 or 6 miles south of Newcastle.  Here, he holed up “under the radar” of the Hanoverian government and its military forces, married and had children until his natural death in 1782.  It was from here in the 1820s that his grandson, Thomas Drummond, set out to try and regain his family’s titles and property.

Edinburgh City Archives holds a large collection of records called ‘Services of Heirs’.  Under the feudal system in Scotland all land was theoretically owned by the Crown and then passed on to, or “feued” to, vassals or other owners.  When an owner of such property died within a royal burgh, the heir had to prove his or her right to inherit it and did so by taking the case to a jury (or ‘inquest’) of local landowners who decided whether or not the claim was valid.  In 1831 Thomas Drummond took his case to such an inquest in the burgh of the Canongate and the bundle of papers which survive in the City Archives tell a compelling story.

In this blog all that can be given is the briefest of outlines of a few of the testimonies of people given under oath.  In those given in Crieff was one from a James Fisker, whose father, John, was the tenant in a farm called Gallyburn in the parish of Monzie.  According to the son, his father had told him that, “several years after the Battle of Culloden…the said Duke came to his house in the disguise of a beggar-man…” and stood at the highest point of the farm to gaze west towards Drummond Castle about 5 miles away.” He watched as the Duke quietly shed tears.  John Fisker knew the Duke well from the times he had seen him attend the annual Michaelmas Fair at Crieff and was “positive it was the Duke” whom he saw on his farm that day.

Another who gave testimony was John McNab, a merchant and manufacturer in Crieff.  He related how an elder of the Strowan Parish Church, David Harley had told him that he was well acquainted with the Duke before the ’45 and had even seen him in Crieff square alongside Charles Edward Stuart at the start of the campaign.  Harley had told McNab that many years after Culloden, he had seen the Duke “repeatedly pass and repass between Auchtertyre and Drummond Castle sometimes in the habit of a beggar-man, and at other times in the habit of an old lady.”

It has to be said that there are other historical sources which support the contention that James Drummond the Jacobite of Drummond Castle fought at Culloden and was so badly wounded that he died during his flight to France. But the testimonies related above and many more from the same source give us cause to stop and wonder. The stories here and more from those in Scotland, in the north-east of England and in Kent (where a woman called Elizabeth Peters who swore on oath that she was the daughter of the late James Drummond) all make compelling reading and outline an altogether different history to the standard one of the man who was commonly known as the Duke of Perth.

The Records of West Calder Library

In the early nineteenth century there was little free access to books in Scotland. Although the earliest known library in West Calder opened towards the end of the eighteenth century, it was a subscription library, meaning that users had to pay a subscription to join.  The Public Libraries Act of 1850 (and subsequent legislation) paved the way for more universal provision, allowing local authorities to establish free, rates-funded libraries. The generosity of Andrew Carnegie in funding fifty public libraries in Scotland made the vision of free libraries a reality.

In 1902, West Calder Parish Council unanimously decided to take steps toward adopting the Libraries Act and an application was made to Andrew Carnegie. Mr Carnegie intimated that he would give the sum of twenty-five hundred pounds sterling to erect a Free Library Building for West Calder if the Free Libraries Act be adopted.

Under the provision of the Act, the Sheriff set a meeting to gain the opinion of householders on the adoption of the Act. The meeting was set for 22 October at 5pm. This time was not considered to be suitable by many householders; so keen were they to be present at the meeting that 200 signed a petition and delivered it to the sheriff asking that the time of the meeting be altered. It was duly changed to 7pm; 173 voted for the adoption of the Act and 146 against. Consequently, the Sheriff declared the Act adopted and West Calder Parish Council was charged with appointing a committee for its establishment comprising members of the parish council, householders and ratepayers.

Mr Carnegie was invited both to lay the memorial stone and to officially open the library; unfortunately he found that his engagements made it impractical to visit West Calder on these occasions.  The Memorial Stone was instead laid by John Fyfe, Esq., Managing Director of Young’s Paraffin Light and Mineral Oil Company who owned the vast Addiewell Oil Works close to West Calder.

The library’s first librarian, Thomas Blackwood, was appointed on 28 July 1904 at a salary of £70 per annum.  The library was formally opened on 24 November 1904 by Lord Rosebery with a cake and wine banquet held at the library.  Every ratepayer in the parish also received a ticket to an address by Lord Rosebery in the People’s Hall.  Although non-ratepayers were able to join the library, their application had to be signed and certified by a ratepayer.

By the October of the first year there were 755 readers on the roll. On opening, the library established strict Bye-laws and Regulations to regulate the behaviour of readers visiting the library. Amongst these, it was stipulated that: ‘Any Person intoxicated, disorderly, or un-cleanly, shall not be admitted, and noise or conversation will not be allowed in the rooms.’

The library also kept the books out of the public’s reach; to request a book you had to fill in a form and hand it in at the counter.  The Library Committee was obviously worried about the transmission of infection via library books and it was stated that: ‘The occurrence of Infectious disease in the Reader’s House cancels the Reader’s privilege for the time being.’  Being excluded from a public building due to infection is almost unimaginable nowadays!

The early records of West Calder Public Library, from 1902 to 1935, can be viewed at the Archive and Records Centre. Telephone 01506 773770 or email archive@westlothian.gov.uk for further details.

Edinburgh’s Top 12: The Convention of Royal Burghs

 

First page of the first minute book of the Convention of Royal Burghs, 3 April 1552

First page of the first minute book of the Convention of Royal Burghs, 3 April 1552  (Note the doodle at top left)

The Convention of Royal Burghs – originally known as the Court of the Four Burghs – was a Scottish institution of great antiquity before it was succeeded in 1975 by the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities or COSLA.  The original Court of the Four Burghs dates back at least to the 13th century as proved by a decree of 10 January 1295 recorded in the Acts of the Scottish Parliament.  In fact, up to the later 20th century, it had a history longer than that of any other body in Scotland save that of the Roman Catholic Church.

The original composition of the Court included Edinburgh, Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick although the latter two burghs were replaced by Linlithgow and Lanark from 1368.  The Convention drew up the laws of the four burghs which applied to all Royal or King’s burghs within Scotland.  By the 1550s the Convention had increased its powers to include the assessment of taxation for Scottish burghs, the power both to negotiate on matters relating to foreign trade and to lobby parliament and the monarch.

The Convention was, for example, intimately involved in the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Union of 1707, voiced its considerable opinion on the pros and cons of the proposal and subsequently made it its business to oversee the implementation following its coming into effect on 1 May 1707.  A minute of 10 July of that year reads: “The conventione, considering that by the articles of Union of the tuo kingdomes of Scotland and England, the priviledges of the royall burrows are therin reserved, and that it is the great interest and concern of all royall burrows that due care be taken now after the Union for advancement of trade and encouragement of the product and manufactur of this part of the United Kingdome…”

They took their Treaty monitoring role very seriously and as early as 24 July had been petitioned by a group of merchants who had sailed with cargoes, legitimate under the new agreements, into London only to have their ships and goods impounded.  The Convention in turn addressed Queen Anne on their behalf in order to find a resolution to the difficulty although it is not immediately clear from the minutes that one was found.  Such problems beset the early Union and disquiet among ordinary Scots with the settlement persisted well into the 18th century when things began to look up economically.  The records of the Convention throw some light on this and, of course, on other matters relating to Scotland’s economic and social history for all those interested to follow it up.  Edinburgh City Archives holds records for this body which range from 1552-1982; this comprises 430 years of continuous history, a very substantial and nationally important collection indeed.

The Convetion of Royal Burghs records are just one of Edinburgh City Archives’ Top 12 Treasures which are featured in our gallery of the same on our website. You can access this small exhibition by clicking here. More of our Top 12 will be featured in posts here over the coming months.